Thursday, October 13, 2016

Nicole Degrading

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Gödel 10 - 6. The Greek Example



6. The Greek Example

Instead of poker, I prefer politics. And after all, politics is a way of people making choices which affect their lives. And it is a natural laboratory for GTN. With real consequences. Let me take the current turmoil in Greece as an example.

Do not understand Greece? That is all right, you are with a great deal of company, including people who really ought to know better. But what if the papers today were a giant remark by a negotiator for the Germans. Basically he said: "Why do not you just leave?"

And that remark gave everyone who thought they had a clue, a real point to start at the end and work backwards. It was just the smart people who knew what was going on, it was the people who listened very closely, which is a larger number than before. You just have to know what the signs are, and use something called "Game Theory".

Game theory was invented, to remind everyone, by Morgenstern and John von Neumann, with von Neumann one of the finest mathematicians in the 20th century. The game that they started was littered with the best of minds in the field, many of them great mathematicians themselves. And three of the brightest are already mentioned: Gödel, Turing, and Nash. What the three of them did was essentially invent the idea of informational space, and, though separately, introduced the idea that there was something like a current running through this. Later on, engineers realized that it was not just theoretical, it was also practical.

And one of the greatest ideas came from Nash; that was, do not go forward, go backwards. This way you will know what each participant wants, and how best to conserve it. In this way you could show by game theory what they would do, and what they would do by min maxing their position, whatever their opponents did.

This was not just theoretical, Nash showed it by using poker as an example, but its main use is with real people and the choices that they make. Once you look backwards, you will see that the logical choices, if any, will be there. And sometimes they will not be there as you would expect.

Take for example: Greece. It might seem that there are only two players: a Greek player, and a European player. From this viewpoint, the Greeks want out, and the Europeans want in, that is of the euro. So the Europeans punish the Greeks to bend them to their will. But there is not two but three players in the game: the rich Greek people, the poor Greek people, and the Europeans. The Europeans and the poor Greek people both want for Greece to go on the drachma. But the rich Greek people, who control all that is worth anything, want to stay, so they can move out of the country whenever is worth moving. They are the people who want to stay.

With this in mind, it then becomes very simple to see why the condition of the country is what it is. The rich Greek people are hiding money, leaving exposed public goods to be taken; because after all they do not care about public goods, only private ones. The poor Greek people, who have some allotment of public goods, even if it is just to get some to lose money, do not have this advantage. That is why the rich Greekocrockes do not care about public goods, and are happy to waste them in order to keep the private goods which they can shuffle back and forward.

But more than that, there are other rich elites wanting to stay on the euro, whatever the cost is to their poor brethren. Such as Ireland. All of these elites want to stay on the euro to have transportability of their money, while the poor do not really care. At least not enough to take the whipping from the bloodless Eurocrats.

So next time you see the results of what is going on in Europe, realize that the parliament is controlled by rich people, and the poor are increasingly out on the street. And the rich Eurocrats do not have a clue as to how to play the game. What they should do is go after the rich of the country, not the poor. For example taxing money going out of the country. Why? Because to them this is a sideshow, and what is really important is not Greece, but Italy, Spain, and Germany.8

But that would leave the Eurocrats in the position of caring for ordinary people. Which they would not rather do. I will leave as an exercise how many people in Britain actually elect the government.
And that is surprising, because we started out with a mathematical concept, which seemed to have nothing to do with physical laws. But here it is doing physical things, such as play computer games, which some of you think I do not notice. But you would do well to notice that I am up here, and you are down there, and there is an informational space disparity, which does not exactly favor you. Just noting that.

So what have we discovered in this little talk? We discovered that there is a numbering system, which is called the Gödel Numbers, based on how primes are distributed. Then we moved to the Turing Machine, and found that it could manipulate these numbers, and decide which of them are useful in the present case. Finally we discussed Nash Equilibrium, which was the resistance to manipulating Turing machines. Finally we took this trio of mechanisms – let us call it GTN – and found that there was a connection to current space. Obviously this is only the beginning of the story, and whether one works on it, uses it, or decides to run screaming from and only then encounter it in an app, you are stuck with it as a feature of our time. There will be other times, and some of you will go on to make your mark: as these three young men did in their early 20s to early 30s.

But remember, there is lot to think about, and the digestion will take some time, and require more reading from you. You may find that there is some mark that you can make in this lecture, and some future lecturer may take a moment to recognize this. Realize you are getting close to making your mark. And if I am alive, I will be very interested in the direction you will take, because it is the new which is exciting, and strange, and will take some time to get your head around, as Someone by the name of Guth9 did for me.


Footnotes

1 “Zermelo and the Early History of Game Theory”
Actually: “Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme I.”
3 “Enhancing Patent Quality: Screening Out Low-Quality Patents And Trolling Litigation”, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Number 20322
4 From the Antikythea mechanism, through Pascal's calculator, to Babbage's computer.
5 That is: MIT.
6 You can read up on Brouwer proof and a number of different variations on https://en.wikipedia.com/wiki/Brouwer_ fixed-point_theorem
7 At the same time my grandfather, Sterling Price Newberry, was actually involved in mining the Higgs Boson, though it was not called that, from electrons, were it exists, in to x-rays, where it does not exist; at GE.
8 With some fine work by Ian Welsh.
9Cosmology at MIT.



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Welcome to the truth...

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