Monday, January 19, 2015

Codd and Date

7 Week Syllabus for ERM

  1. Galileo
  2. Pascal
  3. Newton
  4. Cantor
  5. Godel
  6. Turning
  7. Codd and Date

In the sciences, Galileo can end a conversation, or be the beginning of one. Even when he is not the subject, he often notes something interesting, which other people later exploit. Sometimes much later. It might seem that he is rather remote from relational database management, but Galileo observed three important things: that the heartbeat is the major way of designing databases, that orbits and heartbeats are the same, and that there is a deep relationship between infinities and continua that is only solved by Cantor.

These three improvements are only a glimpse of what Galileo did, and yet most people would be proud to do just one of these things. We will explore how he did this, from 1604 when he discovered heartbeats, to 1638 when he elucidated that there was a relationship between whole and fractional parts of a series.


Pascal is remembered for many things, but in this role he started work on calculation machines and why this was important to digital computers.He was also involved in cycloid, and that led the way to the physics of solids. It may not seem that this has much to do with relational databases, but in fact that years how we computer whether we are dealing with random numbers or a set which is whole and integral. 

 He also formulated the Pascals triangle, which was the way Cantor used to formulate the idea that something could be countable and yet unlimited. 


if Galileo was to find the outlines of the problem, Newton found the answers, though he was secretive about how he got them. He got answers by formalism, that is a general solution to a problem, and informally based on different proves which did not solve the problem, but worked there way around them. This combined method of theoretical and practical solutions meant that the problems which may had to be able to solve, good be done.


Cantors great achievement was realizing what had actually been proven. First he discovered that Pascal's triangle meant that real numbers were countable, while transcendental numbers were uncountable. This is the result of showing that all whole numbers fit on pascals triangle, but transcendental numbers are more numerous, which he proved, though often to vigorous debate.


It Cantor had made a distinction between finite and infinite, and with different kinds of infinite; Godel erased the distinction between symbols - and numbers etc. he published a proof in his late 20s, and showed how addition traction and so on could be in the same field as numbers.This means all systems, that are infinite are 3 value, not 2 (true,false,no value).


First Turing simplified dels complex number language with a simple device - well simple to computer scientists - which was close to buildable, and that it would be possible to represent an algorithm. But even when on to prove that it would not be possible to know whether it would halt, answering David Hilbert's question on the decision problem (Entsheidungsprolem).

Codd and Date

Codd and Date  formulated rules  made the relational database specific and portable among all computer  architectures.  currently there is only one which completely adopts ther rules, but many of them have adopted most of them.  this includes IBM System R,  Oracle,  postgres,  Sybase,  and MySQL.  including micro DBMS  produced at MIT.

Canto 12 - Rheingold, Dante unmasked, Pascal

Canto 12


Reingold, Rheingold, Leuchtende Lust!
 I can hear the maidens cry for it!

It was the last rasp of John Cairdi, whose working  translation  was wobbling
 and new translations were knocking on the door.
 his times over,  not like in the heyday of his fame,
 when Dante was Cairdi,  and all was right with the work,
 win God's of advertising,  the mad men of a mad age,
 would come through it for wisdom on the distant past.

 and proposition VI  on the formal undecidable principles,
 was neglected in every  w-consistent recursive class C along the
 back roads  where VAX C would be spoken,
 and even more arcane dialects,
 giving question to how finite countable could contain the infinite.
 it was a question the past by Hofstadter,  and  echoed in rooms
 that had no name.  but just like it was it was,
 was coming to consciousness,  where men with men,
 lusted for a secret name,  which had a mixture of wanting
 gusto with discussed,  even by men who wanted it.

 try to remember,  that those who didn't want,  but want other people
 to stand up straight,  and be counted for what they are,
 were standing suspect and suspicioned,  they must have wanted
 lust that had no name,  and nothing could remove that special  suspicion,
 even while it was not true.

  amid the towers which were designed for some  South climate,
 not here in the quarafrane  of the Northeast,  hidden  topics
 which had no name,  even have they were spoken.
 how could topics of mathematics position,  being combined
 with passions that  did not have a name.
 as  Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley would overwayne
 the deeper text that overshadowed it.
The Crying of Lot 49 was understood by very few who read,
 even though Thomas Pynchon was a God to the horade
 who went through life praying to God's of the 1960s.

 when John  LeCarre  was beginning to be known  as the un-Bond
 and is film by Alec Guinnese  was just becoming known  as his  doppelgänger in
 that  world a fiction  known as TV.  How did all of this fit together?

mumon  the boomerang code of Godel  numbered TNT:
 people who did not know what they were,
 but they knew they were different,  whether it was the other
 gender,  or the other sex,  or something they could not describe.

 George Santayana arriving in the port of Boston
 was  eight figure that was dying,  too generations before
 he was  fraid by those seeking a rock to base their fir  trees out of.
 it is pound  I am thinking of,  and all his noxious fumes of fascism and Nazis,
 I would rather be some kind of fool  as I am,
 rather than the fool that he is.
 this got us was born of seafoam
 she is later than in air under  Hesperus
 returning to my theme,  I say we came
 to the foot of a great tower; but long before
 we reached it through the marsh, to horns of flaming,
 and this I knew from younger days.

Lord of the Flies, a  nurse was doing something Ned Beaumont face
 with Sam Spade job was long and  bony
Laudanun was on the ice pick to commit the 17th murder
 the telephone rang.  in she answered it and call me.
 in Reno on the 17th,  and it was on Laudanun,
 so far away  from  London Town.

 all mimsy were the  Borogroves
 said Lewis Padgett writing that there is no use
 to describe either Unthahorsten  or his surroundings.

Then I  woke up and stared down at my fingers.



Pascal  triangle,   every day spent looking at this,
 every day staring at  the figures and functions.
We  always have Paris,
You are numerous is shrinking
 your universe is showing in
 your universe is  a  shrinking.
Chamcha  saw  himself reflected in the small cracks of your above the box.
 I am in the accepted that I am.

The  building occupied by the Brickell community relations Council,
 and yet it was
 everything else was demanded by that

 didn't know that  this evening he was going to be in jail,
 over some which meant nothing to him
 but meant everything to friends that he cared for.


It was still New York,  and my night in jail was  ahead of me.
 with raging bells,   and silent screams,  all ringing through my head.
 it was night it was winter,  at least in my imagination
 but in reality it was fall,  early fall.
 and all the things that fill in  entails
 were scattered on the floor,
 watching ants crawl  the nips and tucks.
 to watch over the hill and darkness,
 and to imagine greater then  any generation had yet seen.
  Pluto was still a planet,  and we did not know either Kuiper,  or Oorte cloud planets.
 and no one knew how many there were.
 while deep in space we saw stars,  as yet there were no planets
 that were  orbited among them.